Course description

To provide an introduction to thermal and mechanical design methods for shell and tube heat exchangers, reboilers, condensers and air coolers.
Special emphasis is placed on interaction between mechanical aspects and process requirements in the thermal and hydraulic design of heat exchangers.
On completion of the course, the participants:
•    know the heat transfer laws in heat exchangers
•    know technology, types and selection criteria of shell and tube heat exchangers
•    know the main constraints and thermal, hydraulic and mechanical design rules.



Graduate engineers and engineering staff from the technical and process departments of refining, petrochemical and chemical companies.


Course content

•    Heat exchange conditions: convection coefficients, resistance caused by the walls and by fouling.
•    Overall heat transfer coefficient. Mean heat potential in a heat exchanger.
•    Transferred heat flow rate across an installed surface.
•    TEMA standard heat exchangers nomenclature. Selection criteria for different types of shells and front and rear head ends.
•    Geometrical characteristics of TEMA heat exchangers.
•    Different two-phase flow regimes.
•    Characterization parameters. Flow regime maps.
•    Pressure drops in two-phase flow
•    Heat exchange without change in physical state: convection coefficient and pressure drops in the tube bundle and shell. Division of flow into several currents according to construction patterns.
•    Vaporization: boiling mechanisms, convection coefficients inside and outside horizontal and vertical tubes. Hydrodynamics of thermosiphon reboilers.
•    Condensation: condensation modes, film condensation characteristics, influence of the nature of the vapor to be condensed (pure substance, mixtures, existence of uncondensables).
•    Air coolers: overview of technology, convection coefficient and pressure drops in the air, ventilation power.
•    Constraints arising from the process and thermal sizing.
•    Influence of technological constraints related to operating conditions: nature, pressure, temperature or difference in temperature of fluids.
•    Vibrations induced by flow in a shell: prediction, severity criteria, influence on design.
•    Influence of construction and assembly constraints: tubing, inlet and outlet areas of bundles and shells, tube bundles, baffle plates and supports.
•    Influence of construction patterns on thermal performance.
•    Restrictions due to heat exchanger weight, size and arrangement.


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