Course description

This 5-day course outlines the risks inherent in the products and equipment handled in the operation of refinery and petrochemical plant. It is designed to assist participants understand and develop the type of attitude that fosters greater safety in plant operations.On completion of the course, participants will be familiar with the: 
•    common risks in the oil industry 
•    main prevention approaches
•    typical safety management practices


Operating personnel (engineers, shift leaders and/or operators) in refineries and Petrochemical/Chemical plants and any staff involved in operations (maintenance, SHE department).


Course content

•    Product-related risks
•    Flammability
o    Risks incurred by flammable products; flash point, explosive limits
o    Ignition sources; flames, self-ignition temperature, sparks and static electricity, pyrophoric products
o    Presence of oxygen; risks incurred by inlet of air
o    Preventive measures and precautions: during normal conditions, during draining and sampling; in the event of leaks; with regard to storage tanks; during loading and unloading; during repair work
o    B.L.E.V.E.
    Fluid behaviour and related hazards
o    Vessel pressure and consequences of an increase or decrease in temperature:  thermal expansion, vaporization, collapsing due to vacuum, freezing due to pressure relief

•    Physical hazards involving personnel
o    Poisoning: ingestion, metabolism and elimination
o    Cases related to specific products: chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, benzene, acids, alkalis, additives, inhibiters
•    Equipment-related risks
o    Main risks
o    Avoidance of risks through the correct use of commonplace equipment: safety valves, rupture discs
o    Corrosion hazards and control
•    Safety in process operations
o    Precautions and risks related to the use of utilities: inert gases, liquid water, steam, air, gas oil, fuel gas
o    Safety related to blowdown and drainage toward: flare, slops, tanks, oily water 
o    Blending procedures: conditions for installing blinds or stoppers
o    Degassing-inerting: steam, nitrogen, water, vacuum, work permits
o    Entry into vessels - atmosphere analysis: oxygen content, explosivity, toxicity
o    Start-up: checks, accessibility and cleanliness, line up, nitrogen-, water-, steam- or vacuumedaeration
o    Seal tests
•    Hazard analysis in design and operations
o    Basic concepts; hazards rating
o    Basic techniques used: check-lists, HAZAN, what-if, HAZOP
o    Hazards related to modifications
•    Safety management
o    Human factors in risk management
o    Safe and unsafe habits, motivation
o    Difficulties in improving safety results
o    Typical safety organization
o    Ten keys for good safety management in the field

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